Principle used for flatness measurement

Measuring Flatness Measuring Form Tolerance GD&T

  1. Flatness, which regulates the deviation from the geometrically perfect plane, is measured using a dial gauge or a coordinate measuring machine. This page explains how to do this, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using these instruments. Learning GD&T From Scratch, provided by KEYENCE, walks you through the basics of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, datums, and.
  2. In metrology, the Surface plate is used as a measuring base or a datum surface for testing of flatness of surfaces. Surface plate forms the basis of the measurement. Surface plates are widely used in where the inspection is carried out. So Surface plate will become a working standard. But how actually we can measure the flatness of the surface.
  3. This property is also used if flatness is assessed using (electronic) levels. Evaluation of surface plate flatness measurements. Eur J Mech Eng 38:165-172 The measurement principle is.
  4. How to Measure Flatness with Optical Flats by Van Keuren Introduction The easiest and best way to test the flatness of a flat lapped or polished surface is with an optical flat. Such surfaces are found on micrometers, measuring machines, gage blocks, snap gages, ring seals, valve seats and precision flat lapped parts

Flatness Measurement of Chassis To measure warpage and flatness, you have to determine the difference in height attained by several sensor heads at different locations on the part. In this instance, you won't experience any measurement errors that are typically caused by chattering because the sensor heads do not move 4.1 Principle of flatness measurement in the multipurpose system 56 4.2 Integration of width measurement and surface quality inspection 59 4.3 Experimental system 61 5 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 65 5.1 Performance of the optical projection moiré flatness measurement system 66 5.2 Performance of the multipurpose flatness measurement system 7 Symbol: Relative to Datum: No MMC or LMC applicable: Yes - New in 2009 Drawing Callout: Description: GD&T Flatness is very straight forward. It is a common symbol that references how flat a surface is regardless of any other datums or features.. It comes in useful if a feature is to be defined on a drawing that needs to be uniformly flat without tightening any other dimensions on the drawing transducer can be used to measure the flatness of the sample surface. Internal to the device the distance between echoes can be used for thickness measurements. This paper will discuss the acoustic surface flatness (ASF) and bondline thickness measurement methods as well as present examples of these applications

What are the different Flatness Testing Methods for

5. Convert the flatness as measured in units of fringe lines to microinches (µin.). It is necessary to know the wavelength of light being used for the measurement. If possible, obtain the wavelength of the light source from the manufacturer of the lamp. One Fringe Count or Band = One-half the wavelength of light used A surface plate is a solid, flat plate used as the main horizontal reference plane for precision inspection, marking out (layout), and tooling setup. The surface plate is often used as the baseline for all measurements to a workpiece, therefore one primary surface is finished extremely flat with tolerances below 11.5 μm or 0.0115 mm per 2960 mm for a grade 0 plate

(PDF) Flatnes

Special Note: Parallelism actually has two different functions in GD&T depending which reference feature is called out. The normal form or Surface Parallelism is a tolerance that controls parallelism between two surfaces or features. The surface form is controlled similar to flatness with two parallel planes acting as its tolerance zone. Axis Parallelism is a tolerance.. 1. Void fraction measurement (A v/A) a) Capacitance measurement b) Optical characterization 2. Quality measurement (m v/m) These techniques are for the most part all used in classical fluid flows. The unique cryogenic features have to do with instrumentation used to detect signal and need for low heat leak Unfortunately, the work element is a generic term used throughout Y14.5 to imply anything of interest. For example, elements could be points, circular sections, linear sections, etc. In the case of flatness, it makes the most sense from the measurement perspective to consider elements as the data points representing the surface. So far, I can think of several methods which I would like to present and discuss here. Feedback on my methods is very much appreciated. You are welcome to add more methods and describe them in detail. I hope that we can pull together a comprehensive summary of how to measure flatness of simulated parts. 1. Use the script flatness.vbs in Moldflo Q5.Which type of light source is used in N.P.L. type of flatness interferometer? a) Mercury vapour lamp b) Cadmium lamp c) Both a. And b d) None of the above. Q6.The Pitter - N.P.L. Gauge interferometer is used to measure a) Flatness b) Length c) Straightness d) All of the above. Q7.What does effective profile mean, while defining a surface.

Warpage and Flatness Surface and Measurement Type

measurement technique is popularly known as interferometry. This technique is used in a variety of metrological applications such as inspection of machine parts for straightness, parallelism, flatness, measurement of very small diameters, and so on. The instrument used for making measurements usin Methods of Level Measurement Two methods used to measure level; Direct or Mechanical method, and Indirect or Inferential methods. A. Mechanical or Direct Method Direct level measurement is simple, almost straightforward and economical; it uses a direct measurement of the distance (usually height) from the datum line, and used primarily for loca Comparators, Surface Flatness, Surface Roughness, 1. Comparators Prof. Afaqahmed MODULE - 2 15 Marks 2. Introduction The general principle of comparator is to indicate the differences in size between the standard and the work being measured by means of some pointer on a scale with sufficient magnification It thus does not measure the actual dimension but indicates how much it differs from.

Flatness GD&T Basic

Depth Gage Basics | 2015-05-01 | Quality Magazine

Flatness Fringe Interpretatioi

The flatness measurement will then be used to draw conclusions for the optimum setting of upstream processes or to increase the productivity of a line or to avoid damage. It may also be used to provide a report of the flatness of the material for the purchasers of the material measuring the flatness of a plane. The choice of the best-suited method is governed by various factors, such as size and shape of the part, the area to be inspected, its accessibility and intersection with other surfaces and the desired degrees of measuring accuracy. Interferometry is one of the precise methods for calculation of flatness 6. Which of the following option is true for given statements for flatness testing? Statement 1: Straight edges can be used to check flatness. Statement 2: Single ended straight edge can be used to determine flatness of the surface. a) T, T b) F, F c) T, F d) F, T View Answe the flatness gauge for measuring various points on the lapping plate and relating these to the plate shape, proper conditioning can be completed in a short amount of time. Below are common plate shapes that would be seen from measurement data taken from the plate surface

Efficient Genetic Algorithms for Measurement of Flatness

The flatness tolerance may be used to control the form of derived median plane. Also the straightness tolerance may be used to control the form of the derived line. The Surface must lie between two planes 0.004 apart from each other and the specified surface must be within the specified limit of size tolerance Measurement of the surface flatness of polished surfaces can be determined visually by comparing the variations between a work surface and the surface of an optical flat. Optical flats are versatile optical components used in many applications, such as: inspection of gauge blocks for wear and accuracy, as well as the testing of various. 6 Rule #1 - Taylor Principle (Envelope Principle) 5-7 sgn i naeM/ s l obmy ST7G&D 8 - 5 8 Material Conditions 5-8 8.1 Maximum Material Condition (MMC) 5-8 13.2 Flatness 5-23 13.3 Circulatity (Roundness) 5-23 13.4 Cylindricity 5-23 The ∅1.00 is the feature to be used for measuring the .500 dimension for locating the n.12

We report on a highly precise site flatness measurement system that employs a pair of heterodyne interferometers and achieves sub-nanometer precision for polished 300-mm silicon wafers. The determined overall mean standard deviation for the site flatness front-surface least-squares fit range is 0.21 nm T.F. Kuech, in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2011 Polymeric materials. The constraints on wafer flatness can be relaxed through the use of various polymeric bonding media. These media can typically be spun onto the surface and then mated to create a monolithic material. There is a wide choice of bonding materials given the tailorability of the polymer materials Phantoms are not used for the process of CT dose measurement. False To standardize the measurement of the dose and provide a clinically realistic geometry, the Bureau of Radiological Health researchers suggested that the ionization chamber be placed in one of two cylindrical phantoms during the radiation measurement ndt, panametrics-ndt, non destructive test equipment, ultrasonic transducers, ultrasonic sensors, non destructive testing, nondestructive testing, ultrasonic testing.

Surface plate - Wikipedi

Measuring Instruments GD&T Measuring Instruments and

Free Analysis Software with Talyvel electronic levels

They are often used to make very small measurements that are not achievable any other way. This is why they are so powerful for detecting gravitational waves--LIGO's interferometers are designed to measure a distance 1/10,000 th the width of a proton! Widely used today, interferometers were actually invented in the late 19 th century by Albert. Working Principle Interference is the principle behind the working of optical flats. An optical flat is placed on a surface, in order to measure its flatness, before a monochromatic light is made. The local variation in flatness, or repeat reading, is typically checked using what is called a repeat reading gage. This measuring instrument has a small three-point base connected to a pivoting section with a fourth contact point. An indicator is used to measure the vertical movement of the fourth point relative to the base

Chapter 11: The Measurement of Straightness, Flatness and

  1. Micrometer and verniers calliper can be used to check tolerance fine within 0.002 to 0.02 mm, but for fine tolerance they are not effective. Thus there is a need of instrument which can measure fine tolerance limit. The means to do so are 'slip gauges'. They can be used to measure tolerances in the range of 0.001 to 0.0005 mm very accurately
  2. Product Description. The Zeta-20 benchtop optical profiler is a non-contact, 3D surface topography measurement system. The system is powered by patented ZDot technology and Multi-Mode optics, enabling measurement of a variety of samples: transparent and opaque, low to high reflectance, smooth to rough texture, and step heights from nanometers to millimeters
  3. To measure a known angle or locate any work to a given angle: Always use a perfectly flat and clean surface plate. Place one roller on the surface plate and the other roller on the slip gauge block stack of height H. Let the sine bar be set to an angle ϴ. Then sin(ϴ) = H/L, where L is the distance between the center
  4. The AFM principle is based on the cantilever/tip assembly that interacts with the sample; this assembly is also commonly referred to as the probe. The AFM probe interacts with the substrate through a raster scanning motion. The up/down and side to side motion of the AFM tip as it scans along the surface is monitored through a laser beam reflected off the cantilever
  5. Linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) are used to measure displacement. LVDTs operate on the principle of a transformer. As shown in Figure 2, an LVDT consists of a coil assembly and a core. The coil assembly is typically mounted to a stationary form, while the core is secured to the object whose position is being measured
  6. Working Principle of Post Tensioning . We all know that concrete has a high compressive strength and steel has a high tensile strength, and when their combination is used to bear loads, the efficiency increases manifold. Fig 1: Typical Details of Post Tension Slab

Autocollimator - Wikipedi

Autocollimator -Principle, Types, Application, Advantages

These optical instruments are also used in the flatness testing of reflecting surfaces, the control of wedges and plane parallel plates, and parallel measurement of cylindrical bores. Measurement Applications. In addition to testing applications, autocollimators can be used to measure the. radius of concave and convex spherical surface Noted in the application here, the concept can be used to measure many things, such as snow and waste levels. This method of measuring with ultrasonic sensor s is more accurately described as water level measuring and used for water level control. In a tank or container, this will produce the same results

Parallelism GD&T Basic

  1. Laser Measurement & Inspection Mactech On-Site Machining Solutions now offers a cost effective and time-saving solution to your measurement, positioning and inspection challenges. Our measurement and inspection services team can develop a personalized plan providing you with traceable measurement results; from go/ no-go indications, to.
  2. Archimedes' principle is very useful for calculating the volume of an object that does not have a regular shape. The oddly shaped object can be submerged, and the volume of the fluid displaced is equal to the volume of the object. It can also be used in calculating the density or specific gravity of an object
  3. SINE BAR . Sine bars are always used along with slip gauges as a device for the measurement of angles very precisely. They are used to . 1) Measure angles very accurately. 2) Locate the work piece to a given angle with very high precision. Generally, sine bars are made from high carbon, high chromium, and corrosion resistant steel
  4. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Bolted Connections in Steel Structures 2. General Principles in Bolted Connection Designs 3. Assembly 4. Design Strength 5. Tension Capacity 6. Prying Forces 7. Bolt Subjected to Shear and Tension 8. Assumptions. Bolted Connections in Steel Structures: In steel constructions, connections become necessary at various places. [
  5. Taylor Hobson digital autocollimator instrument for straightness measurement twist, squareness, parallelism, flatness, polygons and indexing tables
  6. equator, through Paris. Data from a very precise measurement of part of that great arc was used to define an artifact meter bar, which became the practical and later legal definition of the meter. The English system of units was based on a yard bar, another artifact standard [6]. These artifact standards were used for over 150 years

Page 1 Agilent Cary 60 Spectrophotometer User's Guide...; Page 2: Safety Notices Agilent shall not be liable for errors or defined in FAR 2.101(a) or as damages on products or performance Restricted computer software as due to using non-Agilent genuine defined in FAR 52.227-19 (June 1987) parts. or any equivalent agency regulation or Agilent Cary 60 Spectrophotometer User's Guide.. Stressometer - Flatness measurement & control The Stressometer Flatness Control System will minimize rejects, pass times and strip breaks. This is achieved thru the use of allmill actuators, both mechanical and thermal, in an optimal way for creating the best possible flatness instrumentation used for surface texture measurement; determining alignment eg principles of straight edges, measurement of straightness, squareness, flatness and parallelism; determining angular measurements eg concepts of geometry, divided circles, principles of angular measurement, angula Flatness can only be applied to one surface at a time unless the Continuous Feature symbol is used to indicate that the two surfaces must be considered to be one surface. It is common to use profile and indicate that the profile tolerance applies to both surfaces. Both of the figures below have exactly the same interpretation

Typically, multiple features will be referenced by each datum, so they're a very important part of the whole thing. Nearly every GD&T symbol except for form tolerances (straightness, flatness, circularity, and cylindricity) can use datums to help specify the geometric control that is needed on the part. Datum Symbol On Drawing MEASURING VERSUS GAGING We often use the terms gaging and measuring interchangeably, but for this month, at least, we're going to distinguish between them as different procedures. There are times when gaging is appropriate, and other times when measuring is the way to go.. The betatron [D.W. Kerst, Phys. Rev. 58, 841 (1940)] is a circular induction accelerator used for electron acceleration. The word betatron derives from the fact that high-energy electrons are often called -particles. Like the linear induction accelerator, the betatron is the circuit equivalent of a step-up transformer Principles of Spectrophotometry. A spectrophotometer consists of two instruments, namely a spectrometer for producing light of any selected color (wavelength), and a photometer for measuring the intensity of light. The instruments are arranged so that liquid in a cuvette can be placed between the spectrometer beam and the photometer

A numerical value expressed in appropriate units of measure and used to define the size, location, geometric characteristic, , or surface texture of a aprt or part feature is a ___ dimension A __ line, along with its arrowheads, shows the direction and extent of a dimensio Protocols, including use of microtiter plates are described in the flyer that comes with the Bio-Rad kit. Principle The assay is based on the observation that the absorbance maximum for an acidic solution of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 shifts from 465 nm to 595 nm when binding to protein occurs Often inexperienced coordinate measuring machine (CMM) operators will perform dimensional measurements without correctly establishing a part alignment. Manual and computer numerical control (CNC) CMM operators sometimes try to use the CMM as a 2-D or 1-D height gage

5 QUEENSLAND MA 2019 CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 6 2.0 Siteworks 12 3.0 Footings, slabs and set out 14 4.0 Masonry 18 5.0 Framing 25 6.0 Wall cladding 3 Figure 1. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: 2D versus 3D. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing concepts are often difficult to grasp at first; beginners can have quite a difficult time understanding the basic principles. One of the reasons for this difficulty is the visualization problem of 3D concepts in 2D documentation Laser - Laser - Laser applications: Lasers deliver coherent, monochromatic, well-controlled, and precisely directed light beams. Although lasers make poor choices for general-purpose illumination, they are ideal for concentrating light in space, time, or particular wavelengths. For example, many people were first introduced to lasers by concerts in the early 1970s that incorporated laser light.

Flatness in the USA - Digital Metrolog

[vii] A tide gauge can use an ultrasonic sensor to detect real-time water level. The gauge is often linked to an online database where a record is maintained, and in case of a risky situation, the system can trigger an alarm. Tank level. Measuring fluid level in a tank is similar to a tide gauge racy of 0.1 dB per 10 dB. Flatness is measured to an ac-curacy of 0.05 dB relative to other points. DIRECTIVITY Inpowermeasurements,thedegreetowhichtheauxiliary line is isolated from the load is of particular importance where high measurement accuracy is required. In power measuring application, where the absolute magnitude o Note 2: When the traffic patterns across a floor are random, (as is generally the case) evaluation of the floor's F F Flatness and F L Levelness will necessarily involve a random sampling of the surface, since all of the infinite potential profiles to be seen by the traffic can not possibly be measured. In those instances when the traffic across a floor will be confined to specific paths. In terms of depth measurement, you can do it with a caliper but you need another micrometer that specializes to measure depth. 7. How They Work. For magnification, micrometers employ the contribution of the threaded spindle, while the calipers use the sliding frame. Therefore, the way we use micrometers is by rotating

Measure flatness - what's best? - Autodesk Communit

A surface roughness and contour can be evaluated with a single measurement. Hybrid machine excellent in cost performance CNC Surface Roughness / Contour Measurement Formtracer Extrea FullyInstrumented is motorized by 2 authors, respectively majoring a Bachelor's Degree in Electronic Instrument and Electrical Engineering, focusing on measuring instrument reviews, guidance, tips, and info Post-tensioned concrete is a term heard more and more in the construction industry today. This method of reinforcing concrete enables a designer to take advantage of the considerable benefits provided by prestressed concrete while retaining the flexibility afforded by the cast-in-place method of building concrete structures Kurtosis is a statistical measure used to describe the distribution of observed data around the mean. It is sometimes referred to as the volatility of volatility - The Pitter - N.P.L. Gauge interferometer NPL gauge interferometer is known as NPL type length interferometer. NPL flatness interferometer is used to measure flatness. - It is used to measure actual length of gauges. - Mercury or cadmium lamp is used as the light source in this instrument. Four wavelengths of each lamp are obtained. Mercury lamp

The optical measurement technology enables a reproducible evaluation of surface defects in series production. The results are objective and available faster than with a grindstone. To ensure that the surface defect representation is directly adapted to the shape of the part, the GOM Inspect Suite offers the inspection of surface defects even in. - Interference method is used to measure flatness of a surface. The dark and light fringes obtained when a monochromatic light passes through optical flat determines whether the surface is flat or irregular. If no bands are obtained the surface is considered as perfectly flat. - The indicator method is used for testing squareness of a workpiece. For optimal measurement and assessment, the testing should be very similar to the muscular fitness training. Muscular Strength Testing Repetition Maximum Testing The gold standard for muscular strength testing is the 1 RM. Kramer and Fry (1995) suggest the following protocol for 1 RM testing. The test procedure begins with a warm-up of 5-10. Principles of chromatography. This is the currently selected item. Basics of chromatography. Column chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) Calculating retention factors for TLC. Gas chromatography. Sort by: Top Voted. Simple and fractional distillations. Basics of chromatography. Up Next Large ultra-precision flatness on-line measurement new method, Process Machinery division The major theoretical principles of CPSA are presented in this paper and it is shown that rotor faults.

Metrology and Quality Control 3 Mechanical MCQ DRDO

In other words measurement fringe is the direct measure of the optical wavefront entering the interferometer, regardless of how it got there. Most interferometer measurements require knowing how the wavefront was created, but there are measurements, like single pass optical wavefront measurements that use measurement fringes as their result Equator systems can be used in factories with wide temperature variation - simply re-master and the system is 're-zeroed', ready for repeatable comparison to the master. A master part is measured to generate a master data set. The same measurement routine is used to measure each production part. Each production data set is then compared to. When you get in your car to go on a drive you often look at your gas gauge, which is a type of a level sensor. Industries use several different level sensor types to detect their products.. In this article, we are going to talk about the different types of level sensors used in the industry, in a very easy-to-follow format A summary of the most commonly used roughness data collection devices, their measurement principles, relative costs, relative degrees of accuracy, and current and projected future use is contained in Table 2. Table 2. Roughness Data Collection Equipment (from FHWA, 1989 [4

Comparators, Surface Flatness, Surface Roughness

This instrument is used to perform accurate density measurements over a specified density, temperature, and viscosity range. At the end of an analysis, the. Aperture area measurement facility. NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facilit An LVDT is an electromechanical device used to convert mechanical motion or vibrations, specifically rectilinear motion, into a variable electrical current, voltage or electric signals, and the reverse. Actuating mechanisms used primarily for automatic control systems or as mechanical motion sensors in measurement technologies Accurate measurement may require a length of straight pipe upstream equivalent to up to 90 upstream pipe diameters for sufficient flow conditioning (see: Think Straight About Orifice Plates). This length of straight run often only occurs in pipe-racks, making getting to the orifice plate difficult and time consuming For continuous, interface and density measurement as well as for point level detection a broad range of measuring principles is available. Endress+Hauser supports you from planning through commissioning and also maintenance of your measuring point. Benefits

Metrology & Flatness - Stahli US

With ELCOMAT direct the measurement is more precise and the measurement time is reduced. Measurement Adjust specimen to autocollimator in such a way, that one image of the collimator reticle is centered in the eyepiece reticle. Rotate the specimen so that the angular deviation of the other reticle image is zero in x-direction. After reading the y A total station is used for measuring both horizontal and zenith angles as well as slope distances. In addition, they also have features for measurement to points that cannot be directly observed (offset measurement) and basic Coordinate Geometry (COGO). At one time, total stations were classified as either directional or repeating instruments Usually these symbols are used with advanced surfaces like the hood of a car. One of the most important concepts beyond just the symbols is the use of datums. Datums are references on an engineering drawing that all other features are referenced from. All of the symbols, besides the first group listed, can rely on datums to help define the part Precision laser measuring tools, systems, and solutions for industrial, R&D, and commercial clients including Non-Contact Measurement, Turbine Engine / Rotating Machine Balancing, Tensile Systems, and OEM/Custom Solutions. Call Sales at 1-800-342-2203 Color - (we won't use color in Beginning Drawing) PRINCIPLES: Balance - can be Symmetrical or Asymmetrical. Symmetrical = dividing a composition into two equal halves with seemingly identical elements on each side. Asymmetrical = balance based upon a visual sense of equilibrium that can be felt more than it can be measured. There are no.

Flatness・profile Measurement System|KOBELCO LEO|KOBELCO

Eccentric orifice plates are used to measure the flow of fluids that carry solids and are also used to measure gases which carry liquids. With the eccentric orifice at the top of the plate, it can measure liquids that carry gas. It should be noted that the eccentric orifice has a higher degree of uncertainty as compared to the concentric orifice • Metrology is the science of measurement • Dimensional metrology is that branch of Metrology which deals with measurement of dimensions of a part or workpiece (lengths, angles, etc.) • Dimensional measurements at the required level of accuracy are the essential link between the designers' intent and a delivered product The measurement is carried out by programming the MS radio to transmit a burst using all available sub-channels for the entire duration. It is a conducted measurement, i.e. an RF cable from the transmitter output is connected to the spectrum analyzer. A conformance measurement should use 100 different bursts

Flatness Instruments by Lapmaster Internationa

5.1 This test method is a procedure for determining the peak-to-valley depth and the wavelength of roll wave in flat glass and then calculating the optical distortion resulting from that roll wave. Peak-to-valley measurements provide a means of monitoring the roll wave distortion in a heat processed glass product The roughness tester PCE-RT 2300 is used to measure the roughness of surfaces. The PCE-RT 2300 roughness tester has a detachable motorized sensor that allows the material tester to determine the surface roughness even on small or narrow profiles. Free software download for remote test control and data save to Windows PC and memory for 100. Use Focus Laser Scanners to enhance the accuracy and speed of your design and engineering processes. When a product has no CAD data, simply scan it to get all the measurements you need for reverse engineering. And when manufacturing fixtures and fittings for ships, cars or aircraft, scan the complex interiors as your basis for planning conversions 8. The basic principle used for measuring a quantity of fuel in a transport airplane equipped with capacitor gauges is that the: A - internal resistance of a capacity depends on the nature of the dielectric in which it is immersed B - capacity of a capacitor depends on the nature of the dielectric in which it is immersed C - capacity of a capacitor depends on the distance between. Introduction: UV-Visible spectroscopy is a mature and well-established analytical technique used extensively in many industry sectors including Environmental Analysis, Pharmaceutical Testing, Food and Beverage Production etc. Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when the molecules or atoms or ions of a sample moves from one energy.

Akrometrixcalibration surface plate - YouTubePinciple of the eccentricity measurement of lens-TechnicalGD&T Tip - Inspecting Flatness at MMC - YouTubeOptical flatsWhat are the different Flatness Testing Methods forRP Photonics Encyclopedia - interferometers, types
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